Academic Honesty

  • Academic honesty entails giving credit to the sources you used to support a project or written work.

Citations (or References)

  • A citation is a way of giving credit to the original source of a creative or intellectual work you used in your paper or project.
  • Makes your paper look stronger, more scholarly, and more credible.
  • Gives credit to the original author of the quotation or the idea.
  • Allows your readers to find the resources you used in your research.
  • When you use the exact words or paraphrase the words of another author.
  • When you use or summarize the ideas or work of another author.
  • When you use widely known and accepted knowledge.
  • When you use easily verifiable facts.
  • Title
  • Author
  • Date of publication
  • Page number/s (for print resources)
  • Date of access (for electronic resources)
  • Name, date, and venue (for interviews)
  • There are several styles used to cite sources that all do the same thing with formatting (italics, parentheses, quotation marks, abbreviations, etc.).
  • Common citation styles are MLA, Harvard, and APA.
  • St. George’s International School recommends using the MLA style of referencing.
  • For examples of how to create citations for some common types of sources, see MLA.

Citing Sources “In-text”

  • An in-text citation tells your reader that you are using intellectual or creative work from another source. It refers the reader to information about your source, which is contained elsewhere in your paper.
  • MLA referencing style uses parenthetical in-text citations, which include the name of the creator and a page number in parentheses.
  • A parenthetical in-text citation must be accompanied by a corresponding entry in your Works Cited list.
  • For examples of how to create in-text citations for some common types of sources, see MLA.

Reference Lists, Works Cited Lists, and Bibliographies

  • Includes only works that you cited in your paper.
  • Appears at the end of your paper.
  • Works are arranged alphabetically, beginning with the first letter of each entry (regardless of whether it’s a name, and organization, or a title).
  • (Same as a “Works Cited” list.)
  • For examples of how to create a References list in MLA style, see MLA.
  • Includes only works that you cited in your paper.
  • Appears at the end of your paper.
  • Works are arranged alphabetically, beginning with the first letter of each entry (regardless of whether it’s a name, and organization, or a title).
  • (Same as a “References” List.)
  • For examples of how to create a Works Cited list in MLA style, see MLA.
  • Includes all the sources you read to prepare for your paper. [Confusingly, the IBO requires a “Bibliography” in the Extended Essay. But you must include only the works cited in your paper (see Criteria A & D).]
  • Appears at the end of your paper.
  • Works are arranged alphabetically, beginning with the first letter of each entry (regardless of whether it’s a name, and organization, or a title).
  • For examples of how to create a Bibliography in MLA style, see MLA.

Footnotes and Endnotes

  • Footnotes use superscripted numbers1 to refer the reader to information contained elsewhere in the paper.
  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page.
  • There are two main types of Footnotes:
  1. Citations cite the source of the information referred to in the paper.

                      1 Dav Pilkey, The Adventures of Captain Underpants (New York, NY: Scholastic, 1997), p, 61.

  1. Explanatory Notes provide supplemental information to the reader.

                      1 See Pilkey, especially Chapters 4 and 5, for an insightful analysis of Mr. Krupp’s transition.

  • The MLA citation style does not use footnotes for citations. Instead, parenthetical references and a “Works Cited” list are used.
  • The MLA citation style does not recommend the use of explanatory notes.
  • For examples of citations in MLA style, see MLA.
  • Endnotes use superscripted numbers1 to refer the reader to information contained elsewhere in the paper.
  • Endnotes appear at the end of the paper.
  • There are two main types of Endnotes:
  1. Citations cite the source of the information referred to in the paper.

                      1 Dav Pilkey, The Adventures of Captain Underpants (New York, NY: Scholastic, 1997), p, 61.

  1. Explanatory Notes provide supplemental information to the reader.

                      1 See Pilkey, especially Chapters 4 and 5, for an insightful analysis of Mr. Krupp’s transition.

  • The MLA citation style does not use endnotes for citations. Instead, parenthetical references and a “Works Cited” list are used.
  • The MLA citation style does not recommend the use of explanatory notes.
  • For examples of citations in MLA style, see MLA.

Word Count (for IB Extended Essay)

The upper limit is 4,000 words. Examiners are instructed not to read or assess any material in excess of the word limit. See the table below to see what is included in the word count:

Source: IBO.org

Citation Generators